Angevin Timeline

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The Timeline of Angevin World
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1066 - 1099 The Norman Invasion and the establishment of Norman rule in England

14 October 1066

The Battle of Hastings begins.

William, Duke of Normandy, is victorious.

Duke William of Normandy, mounted on a horse, after the victory at the Battle of Hastings
Duke William of Normandy, mounted on a horse, after the victory at the Battle of Hastings

25 December 1066

William, Duke of Normandy, is crowned King William I of England.

William I, King of England and Duke of Normandy
William I, King of England and Duke of Normandy
Heraldry of William the Conqueror: Two passant lions on a field of red
Heraldry of William the Conqueror: Two passant lions on a field of red

1 August 1086

The Domesday Book is presented to William I.  It is a “Great Survey” of England and parts of Wales that had been commissioned by William.

Painting of monks creating the Domesday Book, by Joseph Martin Kronheim, 1810-96
Creation of the Domesday Book, by Joseph Martin Kronheim, 1810-96
Photo of page from the Domesday Book for Warwickshire
A page from the Domesday Book for Warwickshire

9 September 1087

The death of William I, King of England and Duke of Normandy.  His oldest son, Robert Curthose, became Duke of Normandy, and his second son, William Rufus, became William II, King of England.

Portrait of William Rufus
William II, known as William Rufus, or William the Red

1100 - 1135 Triumph and Tragedy: The Reign of Henry I

2 August 1100

William Rufus, King William II of England, dies under mysterious circumstances.  During a hunting expedition, he was killed by a single arrow which reportedly struck him in the chest.

Painting of the Death of William the Red by Edmund Evans, 1826-1905
Death of William the Red by Edmund Evans, 1826-1905

5 August 1100

The coronation of Henry I.  He seized the throne of England after the death of his older brother, William Rufus.

Portrait of Henry I
Henry I, King of England

28 September 1106

The Battle of Tinchebray between Henry I, King of England, and his older brother, Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy.  Henry’s victory resulted in the English crown’s control over the Duchy of Normandy for the next century.

Late medieval picture from the 15th century of the Battle of Tinchebray

25 November 1120

The sinking of the White Ship off the coast of Normandy.  Henry I’s only legitimate son and heir, William Adelin, drowns.  Henry I’s remaining legitimate child was a daughter, Matilda, who was married to the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry V.  This event created a crisis of succession that would not be resolved until 1154.

"The Wrecking of the White Ship" painting by Joseph Martin Kronheim, 1868

17 June 1128

The wedding of the widowed Empress Matilda, daughter and heir to Henry I, and Geoffrey Plantagenet, whose family ruled the counties of Anjou, Touraine, and Maine, which were strategically located along Normandy’s southern border.

Portrait of Geoffrey Plantagenet and Empress Matilda

1 December 1135

The death of Henry I.  Although he had named his daughter, Empress Matilda, as his heir, a dispute over the succession immediately arose.

1135 - 1153: The Anarchy, a crisis of succession

22 December 1135

Stephen of Blois, nephew of King Henry I, seizes the throne of England after Henry’s death, despite Henry’s desire for his daughter, Empress Matilda, to inherit the throne of England.

Portrait of Stephen of Blois, King of England
Stephen of Blois, King of England

Christmas 1141

When Stephen of Blois seized the throne of England, it marked the beginning of a twenty year civil war commonly called, “The Anarchy

This conflict dragged on for many years.  At various times, both Stephen and Matilda were teetering on the brink of total defeat, yet managed to recover sufficiently to continue fighting.

A famous incident occurred at Christmas of 1141, when Matilda found herself trapped by Stephen’s forces, which were besieging Oxford Castle.  With a group of loyal knights, Matilda escaped from the castle (most likely through the postern gate) and avoided capture.

Painting of Empress Matilda escaping Oxford Castle, Christmas 1141 by Joseph Martin Kronheim, 1810-96
Empress Matilda escaping Oxford Castle, Christmas 1141 by Joseph Martin Kronheim, 1810-96

18 May 1152

Henry Plantagenet, son of Empress Matilda and Geoffrey Plantagenet, marries Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine, whose marriage to Louis VII of France been annulled only eight weeks prior to their wedding.

With the death of his father, Henry is now Count of Anjou, and he is leading the fight to recover the throne from Stephen of Blois.

The shield of Henry Plantagenet: a single rampant lion on a field of red.
The shield of Henry Plantagenet: a single rampant lion on a field of red.

6 November 1153

The agreement reached to end hostilities between Stephen of Blois and Empress Matilda’s son, Henry Plantagenet, took shape over the summer and autumn of 1153 and was finalized on November 6.

Sometimes called, “The Treaty of Winchester” (or Wallingford, or Westminster), it is more accurately referred to as a charter or settlement.  Stephen agreed to make Henry his heir, Stephen’s only surviving son surrendered his claim to the throne, and Stephen would be allowed to retain the throne until his death.

Painting of Henry and Stephen at Wallingford by Edmund Evans, 1826-1905
Henry and Stephen at Wallingford by Edmund Evans, 1826-1905

25 October 1154

The death of Stephen of Blois, King of England, in the Dover Priory.  He had been suffering from a stomach ailment.

1154 - 1189: The Reign of Henry II
Henry II is the first Angevin king of England and the founder of the Plantagenet dynasty (1154-1485)

19 December 1154

Henry Plantagenet is crowned Henry II, King of England.  His wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine becomes queen.

The son of the Count of Anjou, he rules more land in France than the French king, Louis VII.

The people of Anjou are called Angevins, and Henry II becomes the first Angevin king of England.

Portrait of Henry II

1153 - 1166

family tree of Angevins

Between August of 1153 and December of 1166, Henry II and Eleanor had eight children.  The oldest died in infancy, but the remaining seven survived to adulthood.

William IX, Count of Poitiers (1153-1156)
Henry the Young King (1155-1183)
Matilda, Duchess of Saxony (1156-1189)
Richard I, King of England (1157-1199)
Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany (1158-1186)
Eleanor, Queen of Castile (1162-1214)
Joan, Queen of Sicily (1165-1199)
John, King of England (1166-1216)

14 June 1170

Henry II’s oldest surviving son is crowned as “junior” king, a practice that had originated with the Capetian kings of France.  He became known as Henry the Young King.

Henry the Young King was frustrated by his father’s refusal to grant him any power.

Painting of the Coronation of Henry the Young King
Coronation of Henry the Young King

29 December 1170

The murder of Thomas Becket by four of Henry’s knights horrified the country, especially since he was murdered at the altar.  Thomas Becket’s murder made him a martyr in the eyes of the people.

Painting of Murder of Thomas Becket by Joseph Martin Kronheim, 1810-96
Murder of Thomas Becket by Joseph Martin Kronheim, 1810-96

The Great Revolt of 1173 - 1174

In April of 1173, Queen Eleanor, along with her three oldest surviving sons (Henry the Young King, Richard, and Geoffrey) led a rebellion against Henry II.

The uprising was defeated after eighteen months.

As a consequence, Queen Eleanor was imprisoned for the next sixteen years, until Henry’s death.

Detail from "Queen Eleanor & Fair Rosamund" (1905), a painting by Evelyn De Morgan
Detail from “Queen Eleanor & Fair Rosamund” (1905), a painting by Evelyn De Morgan

1 November 1179

Henry II and his sons attend the coronation of Philippe II, “junior” king of France, whose father, Louis VII, is in declining health.  Less than a year later, on 18 September 1180, Louis will die, and the young Philippe will become sole King of France.

The coronation of Philippe II, with Henry II in attendance
Henry II, on the left, at the coronation of Philippe II of France (center)

11 June 1183

Henry the Young King, aged 28, dies of dysentery.

Protrait Henry the Young King
Henry the Young King

19 August 1186

Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany, and fourth son of Henry and Eleanor, dies at the age of 27.  He was trampled to death in a jousting tournament in Paris.

Geoffrey Duke of Brittany
Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany

4 July 1187

The Battle of Hattin.  The army of Saladin defeats the Crusaders and takes control of most of the Holy Land.  Jerusalem falls to Saladin’s army on October 2, 1187.

These Christian defeats prompted the Third Crusade, which was led by Richard the Lionheart and Philippe II of France in 1189.

Guy de Lusignan surrenders to Saladin after battle of Hattin in 1187 (Said Tahsine, 1954)
Guy de Lusignan surrenders to Saladin after battle of Hattin in 1187 (Said Tahsine, 1954)

Summer of 1188

A series of skirmishes along the Normandy-French border led to heightened tensions between King Henry and King Philippe.  Prince Richard began to demand that Henry formally name him as successor.  Of the five sons born to Henry and Eleanor, only two were still living by 1188:  Richard and John.

Painting of Philippe II of France 1165-1223 (by Louis-Felix Amiel, 1802-1864)
Philippe II of France 1165-1223 (by Louis-Felix Amiel, 1802-1864)

6 July 1189

Henry II dies at the age of 56 from a stomach ailment, perhaps a bleeding ulcer.

He had suffered a series of humiliating defeats at the hands of King Philippe and Prince Richard.

1189 - 1199 The Reign of Richard the Lionheart

3 September 1189

Richard, also known as “The Lionheart,” is crowned King of England.  He immediately makes plans to lead the Third Crusade.

Richard I the Lionhearted 1157-1199 (by Merry-Joseph Blondel, 1841)
Richard I the Lionhearted 1157-1199 (by Merry-Joseph Blondel, 1841)

Summer 1190

Richard and Philippe begin their journey to the Holy Land for the Third Crusade.  They arrive in Sicily in September and spend the winter of 1191 in Messina.

12 May 1191

King Richard marries Berengaria of Navarre, a kingdom on the southern border of Aquitaine.  The marriage took place on the island of Cyprus, and Berengaria accompanied Richard to the Holy Land.

Richard’s marriage to Berengaria further strained his tenuous relationship with King Philippe, as Richard had been betrothed to Philippe’s half-sister.

Portrait of Berengaria of Navarre, Queen of England
Berengaria of Navarre, Queen of England

8 June 1191

King Richard arrives in Acre.  King Philippe had arrived on May 20th, but he was unsuccessful in his efforts to end the Siege of Acre.

King Philippe becomes very ill with dysentery.

July 1191

July 12:  the Siege of Acre ends with a victory for the Crusaders.

July 31:  King Philippe leaves the Holy Land and returns to France.  Richard worries that Philippe may try to take control of disputed lands.

Acre surrenders to King Philippe in a painting which ignores Richard's pivotal role in the victory.
Acre surrenders to King Philippe in a painting which ignores Richard’s pivotal role in the victory.

20 August 1191

The Massacre of the Saracen prisoners, ordered by King Richard.

Richard the Lionheart executing the prisoners at Ayyadieh, August 1191, engraving by Gustave Dore
Richard the Lionheart executing the prisoners at Ayyadieh, August 1191, engraving by Gustave Dore

25 August 1191

Richard begins his march to Jerusalem.

Painting of Richard the Lionheart leading his troops south from Acre towards Jerusalem
Richard the Lionheart on his way to Jerusalem (by James William Glass, c. 1850)

7 September 1191

The Battle of Arsuf was an important victory for Richard and his Crusaders.

They defeated Saladin’s forces and were able to continue their march south towards Jerusalem.

The Battle of Arsuf by Eloi Firmin Feron (1802-1876)
The Battle of Arsuf by Eloi Firmin Feron (1802-1876)
The Battle of Arsuf, by Gustave Dore
The Battle of Arsuf, by Gustave Dore

13 January 1192

Although Richard is only 12 miles from Jerusalem, he retreats without laying siege to the city.  His army is dispirited, but it is winter, and there are logistical challenges that cannot be easily overcome.

Meanwhile, back in France, Philippe tries to trick the Norman barons into surrendering their lands to him while Richard is in the Holy Land.

20 February 1192

While rebuilding the city of Ascalon, Richard returns to Acre on February 20th to settle disputes between the Genoans, who are allied with France, and the Pisans, who are allied with Richard.

These disputes between the Pisans and Genoans are symptomatic of the larger tensions building between Richard’s men and the forces loyal to Philippe.

July - August 1192

Richard is making plans to leave the Holy Land.  He has determined that, although Jerusalem could be taken, it could not be held.

In July, Saladin attacks Jaffa, and the Battle of Jaffa reveals that the two sides are exhausted and ready to end the war.

Richard I at the Battle of Jaffa 1192 by James Grant (1863)
Richard I at the Battle of Jaffa 1192 by James Grant (1863)

2 September 1192

King Richard and Saladin sign a peace treaty following Saladin’s defeat at Jaffa.

The end of the Third Crusade was a three year truce which gave safe passage to pilgrims.

9 October 1192

King Richard leaves the Holy Land and begins his journey home.

Lithograph: King Richard bids farewell to the Holy Land
King Richard bids farewell to the Holy Land

December 1192

Near Vienna, Richard is captured and taken hostage.

While Eleanor works to raise the ransom, Prince John and King Philippe continue to plot against Richard, even offering to pay his captors to keep him longer.

Painting of the Troubadour Blondel at Richard's prison during his captivity by Joseph Marin Kronheim, 1810-96
The Troubadour Blondel at Richard’s prison during his captivity by Joseph Marin Kronheim, 1810-96

4 February 1194

Richard is released from captivity.

Although Prince John had conspired with King Philippe against his brother, King Richard forgave John at the behest of his mother, Eleanor.  John is named Richard’s heir, although Richard was still hoping to father a child with Queen Berengaria.

Painting of Richard pardons his brother, John, at the urging of his mother, Eleanor (by Edmund Evans, 1826-1905).
Richard pardons his brother, John, at the urging of his mother, Eleanor (by Edmund Evans, 1826-1905).

6 April 1199

After his return from captivity, Richard spent the remainder of his life in Normandy, battling Philippe and building fortifications along the Normandy border, such as Chateau Gaillard.

On March 25, he was wounded in the shoulder by a crossbow bolt, believed to have been accidently fired at the king.  The wound became gangrenous, and Richard died on April 6, in his mother’s arms.

Painting of Richard Pardons the Archer who wounded him, by Edmund Evans, 1826-1905
Richard Pardons the Archer who wounded him, by Edmund Evans, 1826-1905

 

1199 - 1216 The Reign of King John

27 May 1199

Coronation of John, King of England.

Portrait of King John
King John

May 1200

The Treaty of Le Goulet between King John and King Philippe was intended to settle many of the long-standing disputes over the borders of Normandy and the Angevin lands.

In reality, it strengthened Philippe’s position and only lasted two years.

1202-1204

During this time, John suffered a number of defeats on the continent, as Philippe continued to advance against Normandy and the Angevin lands.

In April of 1204, Eleanor died and the Duchy of Aquitaine passed to John.

By August of 1204, Philippe had taken Normandy and occupied Anjou and Poitou.  All of John’s continental lands were under Philippe’s control except for Aquitaine.

John would devote the next ten years to fortifying England against attack and preparing battle plans to retake Normandy and the Angevin lands.

27 July 1214

The Battle of Bouvines ended the war between France and EnglandKing Philippe’s victory confirmed his soveigntry over Normandy and the Angevin lands.

England’s Angevin Empire ended.

King Philippe's Victory at the Battle of Bouvines, 1214 by Horace Vernet (1789-1863)
King Philippe’s Victory at the Battle of Bouvines, 1214 by Horace Vernet (1789-1863)

15 June 1215

King John is forced to sign the Magna Carta.

Drawing of King John signing the Magna Carta, with the document displayed in the background.
King John signing the Magna Carta, with the document displayed in the background.

19 October 1216

The death of King John, the last Angevin King of England.

The House of Plantagenet would continue to rule England until 1485.

Photo of the tomb of King John at Worcester cathedral - Photo is public domain
The tomb of King John at Worcester cathedral – Photo is public domain
drawing of Effigy of King John on his monument in Worcester Cathedral
Effigy of King John on his monument in Worcester Cathedral